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Ecological Uplift in an Urban Setting

Posted on March 17, 2020 by Princeton Hydro
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It’s officially time to say goodbye to winter and “spring” your pond out of hibernation mode. We’ve put together six tips for getting your pond ready for Spring and ensuring it remains healthy all year long.

1. SPRING CLEANING 

The first step in preparing your pond for Spring is to give it a thorough cleaning. Remove leaves, debris, and any surface algae that may have accumulated over the winter. For shallow ponds, you may be able to use a net or pond rake to remove debris and sediment from the bottom and along the perimeter of the pond.

2. INSPECT YOUR POND FOR DAMAGE

Inspect your pond, including berms, outlet structures, and trash racks for any damage that may have occurred over winter due to ice. If you observe any damage, we recommend contacting a professional right away. One of our engineers or certified pond managers can determine if the damage is superficial or requires more significant repairs. Also, if your pond is equipped with an aeration system, before starting it up, be sure to schedule a system inspection. A thorough inspection and proper start-up procedure will ensure the system remains fully and effectively operational for the entire summer.

3. PUT YOUR POND TO THE TEST

The routine testing of your pond’s water quality is an important part of preventing harmful algae growth, fish kills, and other problems. We recommend conducting a “Spring start up” water quality analysis of your pond. The resulting data will inform the management process and allow for the development of a pro-active, eco-friendly management plan. Maintaining your pond's water quality helps to control nuisance aquatic species and promote environmental conditions supportive of a healthy and productive fishery.

4. AQUASCAPE YOUR SHORELINE

It’s important to check the pond’s shoreline for any signs of erosion. Mowing to the water line, especially in ponds that have fluctuating water levels, can lead to severe shoreline erosion. Eroding shorelines can be easily stabilized by planting native, riparian plants.

Deep-rooted, native emergent aquatic vegetation is able to tolerate alternating periods of exposure and dry inundation. The correct combination of native aquatic plants, emergent wetland plants, and transitional upland plants can correct or prevent chronic shoreline erosion problems. A properly planted (aquascaped) edge beautifies the shoreline, stabilizes erosion problems, creates fish and amphibian habitat, attracts pollinating species and a variety of birds, and decreases mosquito breeding.

5. CONSIDER INSTALLING AN AERATION SYSTEM

Sub-surface aeration systems eliminate stagnant water and keep your pond thoroughly mixed and properly circulated. These systems are the most cost-effective and energy-efficient way to maintain proper pond circulation. Proper aeration enhances fish habitat, minimizes the occurrence of algae blooms, and prevents mosquito breeding. It's best to contact a certified lake/pond manager to first determine if aeration is the right solution for you. If it is, an aeration system tailored to your pond's needs can be designed and installed.

6. HAVE AN ECOLOGICALLY BALANCED POND MANAGEMENT PLAN

There is more to pond management than weed and algae treatments alone. There is also a big difference between simple pond maintenance and ecologically-based pond management. A customized pond management plan acts as a “blueprint” that guides  proactive, long-term care for your pond.

Our certified lake and pond managers can assess the status of your pond and provide you with an environmentally holistic management plan that is based on the unique physical, hydrologic, chemical, and biological attributes of your pond. A management plan identifies the causes of your pond’s problems and provides you with the guidance needed to correct these problems. The results are far more environmentally sustainable than simple (and often unnecessary) reactive weed and algae treatments.

 

To learn more about our lake and pond management services or schedule a consultation, visit our website.

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Hydrology is the study of the properties, distribution, and effects of water on the Earth’s surface, in the soil and underlying rocks, and in the atmosphere. The hydrologic cycle includes all of the ways in which water cycles from land to the atmosphere and back. Hydrologists study natural water-related events such as drought, rainfall, stormwater runoff, and floods, as well as how to predict and manage such events. On the application side, hydrology provides basic laws, equations, algorithms, procedures, and modeling of these events.

Hydraulics is the study of the mechanical behavior of water in physical systems. In engineering terms, hydraulics is the analysis of how surface and subsurface waters move from one point to the next, such as calculating the depth of flow in a pipe or open channel. Hydraulic analysis is used to evaluate flow in rivers, streams, stormwater management networks, sewers, and much more.

Combined hydrologic and hydraulic data, tools, and models are used for analyzing the impacts that waterflow - precipitation, stormwater, floods, and severe storms - will have on the existing infrastructure. This information is also used to make future land-use decisions and improvements that will work within the constraints of the hydrologic cycle and won’t exacerbate flooding or cause water quality impairment.

Simply put, hydrologic and hydraulic modeling is an essential component of any effective flood risk management plan.

Putting Hydrologic & Hydraulic Analysis to Work in Philadelphia

Eastwick, a low-lying urbanized neighborhood in Southwest Philadelphia, is located in the Schuylkill River Watershed and is almost completely surrounded by water: The Cobbs and Darby creeks to the west, the Delaware River and wetlands to the south, and the Schuylkill River and Mingo Creek to the east. The community is at continual risk of both riverine and coastal flooding, and faces an uncertain future due to sea level rise and riverine flooding exacerbated by climate change.

Princeton Hydro, along with project partners KeystoneConservation and University of Pennsylvania, conducted an analysis of Eastwick, the flood impacts created by the Lower Darby Creek, and the viability of several potential flood mitigation strategies.

Flood mitigation approaches can be structural and nonstructural. Structural mitigation techniques focus on reconstructing landscapes, including building floodwalls/seawalls and installing floodgates/levees. Nonstructural measures work to reduce damage by removing people and property out of risk areas, including zoning, elevating structures, and conducting property buyouts.

For Eastwick, studying stream dynamics is a key component to determining what type of flood mitigation strategies will yield the most success, as well as identifying the approaches that don’t work for this unique area.

Princeton Hydro Senior Ecologist Christiana Pollack CFM, GISP participated in a workshop for Eastwick residents held by CCRUN and the Lower Darby Creek team. The goal of the workshop was to get the community’s input on the accuracy of the predictive models.Princeton Hydro’s study focused on the key problem areas in Eastwick: the confluence of Darby Creek and Cobbs Creek; a constriction at Hook Road and 84th Street; and the Clearview Landfill, which is part of the Lower Darby Creek Superfund site. Additionally, the study sought to answer questions commonly asked by community members related to flooding conditions, with the main question being: What impact does the landfill have on area flooding?

The built-up landfill is actually much higher than the stream bed, which creates a major disconnection between the floodplain and the stream channel. If the landfill didn’t exist, would the community still be at risk? If we increased the floodplain into the landfill, would that reduce neighborhood flooding?

Princeton Hydro set out to answer these questions by developing riverine flooding models primarily using data from US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS). FEMA looks at the impacts of 1% storms that are primarily caused by precipitation events as well as coastal storms and storm surge. NOAA looks at the impacts of hurricanes. And, NOAA's NWS estimates sea, lake and overland storm surge heights from hurricanes.

This is an example of a 2D model showing where the water is originating, how the water flows through the neighborhood, moves to the lower elevations, and eventually sits.

The models used 2D animation to show how the water flows in various scenarios, putting long-held assumptions to the test.

The models looked at several different strategies, including the complete removal of the Clearview Landfill, which many people anticipated would be the silver bullet to the area’s flooding. The modeling revealed, however, that those long-held assumptions were invalid. Although the landfill removal completely alters the flood dynamics, the neighborhood would still flood even if the landfill weren’t there. Additionally, the modeling showed that the landfill is actually acting as a levee for a large portion of the Eastwick community.

This model was developed to illustrate how the removal of the landfill impacts waterflow through the Eastwick community.

Ultimately, the research and modeling helped conclude that for the specific scenarios we studied, altering stream dynamics – a non-structural measure – is not a viable flood mitigation strategy.

The USACE is currently undergoing a study in collaboration with the Philadelphia Water Department to test the feasibility of a levee system (a structural control measure), which would protect the Eastwick community by diverting the flood water. Funding for the study is expected to be approved in the coming year.

Take a Deeper Look at Eastwick Flood Mitigation Efforts

There are many studies highlighting flood mitigation strategies, environmental justice, and climate change vulnerability in Eastwick. Princeton Hydro Senior Project Manager and Senior Ecologist, Christiana Pollack CFM, GISP, presented on the flooding in Eastwick at the Consortium for Climate Risk in the Urban Northeast Seminar held at Drexel University. The seminar also featured presentations from Michael Nairn of the University of Pennsylvania Urban Studies Department, Ashley DiCaro of Interface Studios, and Dr. Philip Orton of Stevens Institute of Technology.

You can watch the full seminar here:

For more information about Princeton Hydro’s flood management services, go here: http://bit.ly/PHfloodplain.

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The Dunes at Shoal Harbor, a coastal residential community in Monmouth County, New Jersey, is situated adjacent to both the Raritan Bay and the New York City Ferry channel.  In July 2018, Princeton Hydro was contracted to restore this coastal community that was severely impacted by Hurricane Sandy. Today, we are thrilled to report that the shoreline protection design plans have been fully constructed and the project is complete.

Rendering of the shoreline protection design
September 2020
A rendering of the shoreline protection design by Princeton Hydro. A snapshot of Princeton Hydro's completed work in September 2020.

In order to protect the coastal community from flooding, a revetment had been constructed on the property many years ago. The revetment, however, was significantly undersized and completely failed during Hurricane Sandy. The community was subjected to direct wave attack and flooding, homes were damaged, beach access was impaired, and the existing site-wide stormwater management basin and outfall was completely destroyed.

July 2018
September 2020
Princeton Hydro performed a wave attack analysis commensurate with a category three hurricane event and used that data to complete a site design for shoreline protection. The site design and construction plans included:
  • The installation of a 15-foot rock revetment (one foot above the 100-year floodplain elevation) constructed with four-foot diameter boulders;

  • The replacement of a failed elevated timber walkway with a concrete slab-on-grade walkway, restoring portions of the existing bulkhead, clearing invasive plants, and the complete restoration of the failed stormwater basin and outlet; and

  • The development of natural barriers to reduce the impacts of storm surges and protect the coastal community, including planting stabilizing coastal vegetation to prevent erosion and installing fencing along the dune to facilitate natural dune growth.

These measures will prevent shoreline erosion, protect the community from wave attacks and flooding, and create a stable habitat for native and migratory species.

During the final walkthrough earlier this month, the Princeton Hydro team captured drone footage of the completed project site. Click below to watch the video:

For more images and background information on this project, check out the following photo gallery and read our original blog post from July 2018:

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For more information about Princeton Hydro’s engineering services, go here.

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The Lake Hopatcong Foundation (LHF) recently launched its newest initiative - a floating classroom. The custom-built 40-foot education vessel, named 'Study Hull', gives students an interactive, hands-on education experience to explore Lake Hopatcong, learn about freshwater ecology, and learn how to protect the watershed.

During its maiden voyage field trip, which was held on May 21, fourth-graders from Nixon Elementary and Kennedy Elementary schools utilized the boat’s laboratory instruments to study water hydrology, temperatures, plankton, and dissolved oxygen levels. They performed a series of tests and experiments designed to help them learn about the general health of the lake. They used Secchi Disks to determine the depth to which light is able to penetrate the water's surface. They also learned about runoff and nonpoint source pollutants, how to protect the lake’s water quality, and how to be good stewards of the water.

Princeton Hydro helped the LHF design a teaching curriculum on water quality.  Dr. Jack Szczepanski, Senior Aquatics Scientist, and Christopher L. Mikolajczyk, CLM, Senior Project Scientist, trained the staff and volunteers on the curriculum and demonstrated various water quality monitoring techniques that can be conducted with the students.

“We’re really proud to be a part of this exciting initiative,” said Mikolajczyk. “It’s really important to get kids interested in science at an early age and teach them about their surrounding environment – where their drinking water comes from, how it gets polluted, the impacts pollution has on the lake’s ecosystem, and what steps can be made to protect the lake’s water quality. We're hoping the floating classroom field trip program will make a lasting, valuable impression with these kids.”

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In the first year of operation it is expected that the Study Hull will host 1,000 fourth grade students. The long-term goal is to develop lesson plans for students in every grade from kindergarten through high school. Starting in July, the LHF is also offering the public tours of the floating classroom on Mondays at Hopatcong State Park.

The purchase of the floating classroom was made possible by financial support from USATODAY Network’s “A Community Thrives” program, which awarded the LHF with a $50,000 grant. The program recognizes three categories: arts and culture, education, and wellness. In each category, the first place winner received a $100,000 grant and the second and third place winners received $50,000 grants. The James P. Verhalen Family Foundation and the Szigethy Family also provided significant donations to help bring the floating classroom to life.

The LHF and Princeton Hydro are longtime partners. Starting back in 1983, Princeton Hydro’s Dr. Stephen Souza conducted the USEPA funded Diagnostic Feasibility study of the lake and then authored the Lake Hopatcong Restoration Plan. That document continues to be the backbone of why and how to restore the lake, manage the watershed, reduce pollutant loading, and address invasive aquatic plants and nuisance algae blooms.

Lake Hopatcong has one of the longest, continuous, long-term ecological databases in New Jersey; almost 30 years of consistently collected water quality data. The data is crucial in assessing the overall ecological health of the lake and proactively guiding its management, identifying and addressing emerging threats, documenting project success (a mandatory element of funding initiatives) and confirming compliance with New Jersey State Water Quality standards.

Princeton Hydro’s most recent work for Lake Hopatcong includes the implementation of green infrastructure stormwater management measures, installation of floating wetland islands to improve water quality, and invasive aquatic plant species management programs, community educational training, and surveys.

For more information about the Lake Hopatcong Foundation or the floating classroom, click here. For more information about Princeton Hydro’s lake management services, go here.

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Photo by the American Littoral SocietyFor over 100 years, the Old Mill Pond Dam in Spring Lake Heights, New Jersey has blocked critical anadromous fish species from reaching optimal spawning habitat. Today, we are thrilled to announce that, thanks to a fish ladder installed by the American Littoral Society (ALS), migratory fish can now scale the dam and access upstream spawning grounds.

The 60-foot-long fish ladder is a device that allows a channel of water to flow through it and is engineered to create both the proper water depth and velocity for fish to navigate through. In this case, it will enable fish to scale the 10-foot-high dam and go deeper into Wreck Pond Brook.

This video from ALS provides an up-close look at the Alaska-Steeppass Fish Ladder and more details about the project:

[embed]https://youtu.be/b6FyQTu23lM[/embed]

Re-opening river passage for migratory species improves not only the health of Wreck Pond Brook and its watershed, but it also benefits the overall ecosystem of the Atlantic shoreline and its coastal rivers. It also supports important recreational and commercial species, such as cod, haddock, and striped bass, which leads to a healthier economy.

For over a century, the dam blocked anadromous fish like Alewife and Blueback river herring, from entering the Wreck Pond Brook Watershed. These fish spend most of their lives in the ocean but need freshwater in order to spawn. The Old Mill Pond Dam, an impassable obstruction for these migrating fish, was identified as a key contributor to the decline of Atlantic coast river herring populations. Subsequently, river herring were classified as National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Species of Special Concern and identified as requiring Concentrated Conservation Actions.

Design rendering provided by the American Littoral SocietyThe fish ladder, which was funded through the US Fish and Wildlife Service and implemented by ALS along with a variety of project partners, including Princeton Hydro, is one more major step in the ongoing effort to restore critical migratory fish spawning grounds, support a vibrant food web to the area, and rehabilitate Wreck Pond and its watershed.

According to the ALS, “Now, instead of Old Mill Dam acting as the furthest migration destination for Alewife and Blueback river herring, these fish have the ability to navigate up the dam through the fish ladder and utilize roughly an additional mile of optimal spawning habitat. The ALS will add the Old Mill Dam fish ladder and newly accessible spawning habitat into its ongoing river herring monitoring surveys.”

American Littoral Society promotes the study and conservation of marine life and habitat, protects the coast from harm, and empowers others to do the same. Learn more and get involved: littoralsociety.org.

Princeton Hydro has designed, permitted, and overseen solutions for fish passage including the installation of technical and nature-like fishways and the removal of dozens of small and large dams throughout the Northeast. To learn more about our fish passage and dam removal engineering services, visit: bit.ly/DamBarrier.

Images provided by the American Littoral Society. 

Photo by the American Littoral Society

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INNOVATIVE COASTAL RESILIENCY DESIGN USING RECYCLED CHRISTMAS TREES IMPLEMENTED BY VOLUNTEERS ALONG DISAPPEARING POINT PLEASANT SHORELINE

To prevent further erosion at the Slade Dale Sanctuary in Point Pleasant, dozens of volunteers helped stabilize the shoreline using a technique that has never been done before in New Jersey.  On Saturday, American Littoral Society, in partnership with Princeton Hydro, Borough of Point Pleasant, New Jersey Nature Conservancy, New Jersey Corporate Wetlands Restoration Partnership, and the Point Pleasant Rotary Club, organized dozens of volunteers to restore the shoreline and prevent further erosion at the Slade Dale Sanctuary using recycled Christmas trees.

As one of only a few areas of open space left in Point Pleasant, the 13-acre Slade Dale Sanctuary is an important part of the local ecosystem, and is home to a number of unique animals and plants. This waterfront preserve along the North Branch Beaver Dam Creek is predominantly tidal marsh, which provides habitat for various birds, including osprey, as well as passive recreation opportunities for the community.

Unfortunately, the Slade Dale Sanctuary is disappearing. Since 1930, the shoreline of Slade Dale Sanctuary has retreated approximately 300 feet, equal to the length of a football field, and the channels into the marsh have increased in number and size, according to a study we conducted on behalf of American Littoral Society, for which we provide engineering and natural resources management consulting services.

In order to stabilize the shoreline, restore the marsh, and enhance the ecological function and integrity of the preserve, Princeton Hydro developed a conceptual and engineering design using living shoreline features to enhance ecological value and reduce erosion. The final conceptual plan for restoration uses tree vane structures to attenuate wave action, foster sediment accretion, and reduce erosion along the coast.

To implement this vision and begin building back marsh, the project team is constructing several Christmas tree breakwaters and Christmas tree vanes that mimic naturally occurring debris structures in tidal systems and enhance habitat opportunity and shelter for aquatic life. Volunteers came together on Saturday, May 11 to help with the construction. The Mayor of Point Pleasant Robert A. Sabosik also attended the event, "The Barnegat Bay is an attribute that we all enjoy, and it's something we have to protect."

After the 2018 holiday season, the Good Sheppard Lutheran Church in Point Pleasant provided space to collect and store donated Christmas trees, which were then moved to the marsh a few days before the event. On the day of the event, recycled Christmas trees were transported from their staged locations on the marsh to the breakwater sections that were previously installed in the water. To transport them across the water to the pilings, volunteers used two methods: by walking a skiff boat loaded with trees through the water to the pilings or by forming assembly line from the shore to pilings to guide floating trees through the water (check out the album below!).  Then, they stuffed the Christmas trees between the pilings, securely tied them down, and staked Christmas trees directly into the creek bottom. For extra assurance, the placed and tied heavy bags of used oyster shells on top of the tree line. Oyster shells were donated by local Monmouth County restaurants in an effort to reduce waste streams.

"We really enjoyed participating in this event with American Littoral Society and so many wonderful volunteers,” Christiana L. Pollack, GISP, CFM, Princeton Hydro's Project Manager for this restoration effort. “It is so wonderful to see this project coming to fruition. We’re so proud of our partnership with American Littoral Society and our combined efforts to revitalize and rehabilitate our precious coastal habitats.”

Members of the media were invited to attend the volunteer event. News 12 New Jersey covered the event and aired a story on it during their Sunday news broadcast, and NJTV News will be airing the story in the near future.

Many thanks to everyone who came out in support of this important restoration effort at Slade Dale Sanctuary American Littoral Society hosts volunteer events throughout the year. Go here to get involved.

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The nonprofit Schuylkill River Greenways, in partnership with Berks Nature, Bartram’s Garden, The Schuylkill Center for Environmental Education, Stroud Water Research Center, and Princeton Hydro, is kicking off a Water Quality Monitoring Project for the Schuylkill River on World Habitat Day, Monday, October 5, 2020. This project, focused on the main stem of the river from Berks Nature in Reading to Bartram’s Garden in southwest Philadelphia, is aimed to document the current ecological status and health of the river and seeks to engage and educate a diverse set of river users and residents.

"An important aspect of our mission is to connect communities to the Schuylkill River through recreational and educational activities," said Tim Fenchel, Deputy Director of Schuylkill River Greenways. "To fully achieve the river’s potential, we must help the public understand the current health status and what they can do to continue to improve its quality for this generation and generations to come."

In order to monitor the presence and/or distribution of litter along the Schuylkill River, the team is launching a campaign to recruit “Community Scientists” to conduct 5-minute Visual Monitoring Assessments. Using their mobile device, these volunteers can simply record the trash accumulation or dumping points along a 100-foot section of the Schuylkill River via a user-friendly form accessed via a cell phone: bit.ly/litterform.

“Trash is important to address when talking about the health of a waterway because it’s often the most visually obvious form of pollution. Bacterial and chemical pollution are generally less directly observable, but when we see trash, it instantly informs our impression of a body of water,” said Chloe Wang, River Programs Coordinator at Bartram's Garden. “And, it can point to larger problems. For example, near Bartram’s Garden, a lot of trash washes into the river from combined sewer overflows, which also introduce harmful bacteria into the water. It will be interesting to see how the presence of trash differs along various stretches of the Schuylkill.”

The Community Scientist visual assessments require no formal training and are meant to be a simple effort that any resident can complete. We’ve developed an assessment survey, which can be accessed and submitted via a smartphone or tablet by opening the link in the phone/tablet’s browser.

“This is an opportunity for anyone with an interest in the Schuylkill River to spend time on the river and provide valuable feedback on the conditions of the river,” said David Bressler, Project Facilitator at Stroud Water Research Center. “Schuylkill River Greenways and its partners in this project are looking for motivated and dependable individuals to help them learn about the Schuylkill River and move in positive directions toward making the river more accessible to the community. Support from volunteers is very important and is greatly appreciated."

The goal is to document critical areas of trash accumulation or dumping points in order to guide management efforts to better deal with this pollution. In addition to the multiple-choice questions to rank trash levels and quantities, this platform asks volunteers to submit a photo of the area and collects the GPS location. By utilizing this user-friendly platform, the data collected under this effort will be summarized and visualized by the project team.

“This project is an important study that we can use to connect people back to the river and show that the Schuylkill River is a place to be enjoyed by the entire community surrounding it and beyond,” said Michael Griffith, Education & Watershed Specialist at Berks Nature.

In 1985 the United Nations designated the first Monday of October every year as World Habitat Day. The idea is to reflect on the state of our towns and cities and the basic right of all to adequate shelter and to remind the world of its collective responsibility for the future of the human habitat. By understanding and improving water quality in the Schuylkill River, we are creating a place that enables community members to access public green and open spaces. This effort also supports UN Sustainable Development Goal 11, which aims for resilient, inclusive, safe, diverse cities by 2030.

In addition to the Community Scientist visual assessments, the stakeholder team is conducting water quality sampling and monitoring over the next year at four locations along the main stem of the Schuylkill River. This scientific documentation of critical water quality parameters will be performed by the stakeholder group’s employees and long term volunteers, who are trained in data collection and scientific methods. We will collect data on bacterial concentrations in the river using a combination of 3-M Petrifilm kits and laboratory-based analytical measures. In addition, in-situ temperature, oxygen, pH, and turbidity data will be collected utilizing Mayfly dataloggers.

"Our research shows that residents care about the river, but are not confident whether it is clean or safe to use for recreational activity. So we’ve designed a volunteer survey and scientific water quality assessment to document the ecological health of the Schuylkill River," said Michael Hartshorne, Aquatic Resources Project Manager at Princeton Hydro. "By studying bacterial inputs and identifying hotspots for trash, we can communicate the status of the river, provide recommendations on areas of improvement, and ultimately, change the current public perception of the river."

For the water quality monitoring, Princeton Hydro scientists will provide training to the partner nonprofit organizations’ staff and review the methods and protocols to assure the highest level of quality. This long-term data collection effort is slated to begin this month and continue for approximately one year. The results of this assessment will allow us to determine potential hotspots related to nutrient and bacteria inputs and to understand the overall ecological health of the Schuylkill River.

Overall, through this effort, the stakeholder team hopes to connect residents and communities with the Schuylkill River and to encourage engagement with this special resource.

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