search
WP_Query Object
(
    [query] => Array
        (
            [s] => lake
            [page] => 
            [pagename] => blog
            [post_type] => post
        )

    [query_vars] => Array
        (
            [s] => lake
            [page] => 0
            [pagename] => blog
            [post_type] => post
            [error] => 
            [m] => 
            [p] => 0
            [post_parent] => 
            [subpost] => 
            [subpost_id] => 
            [attachment] => 
            [attachment_id] => 0
            [name] => 
            [page_id] => 0
            [second] => 
            [minute] => 
            [hour] => 
            [day] => 0
            [monthnum] => 0
            [year] => 0
            [w] => 0
            [category_name] => 
            [tag] => 
            [cat] => 
            [tag_id] => 
            [author] => 
            [author_name] => 
            [feed] => 
            [tb] => 
            [paged] => 1
            [meta_key] => 
            [meta_value] => 
            [preview] => 
            [sentence] => 
            [title] => 
            [fields] => 
            [menu_order] => 
            [embed] => 
            [category__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [category__not_in] => Array
                (
                )

            [category__and] => Array
                (
                )

            [post__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [post__not_in] => Array
                (
                )

            [post_name__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [tag__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [tag__not_in] => Array
                (
                )

            [tag__and] => Array
                (
                )

            [tag_slug__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [tag_slug__and] => Array
                (
                )

            [post_parent__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [post_parent__not_in] => Array
                (
                )

            [author__in] => Array
                (
                )

            [author__not_in] => Array
                (
                )

            [search_columns] => Array
                (
                )

            [posts_per_page] => 11
            [ignore_sticky_posts] => 
            [suppress_filters] => 
            [cache_results] => 1
            [update_post_term_cache] => 1
            [update_menu_item_cache] => 
            [lazy_load_term_meta] => 1
            [update_post_meta_cache] => 1
            [nopaging] => 
            [comments_per_page] => 5
            [no_found_rows] => 
            [search_terms_count] => 1
            [search_terms] => Array
                (
                    [0] => lake
                )

            [search_orderby_title] => Array
                (
                    [0] => ph_posts.post_title LIKE '{0e3439a2b461a39594051100555443c796a154c0e8f28c7d416ee6d6a56c0c3e}lake{0e3439a2b461a39594051100555443c796a154c0e8f28c7d416ee6d6a56c0c3e}'
                )

            [order] => DESC
        )

    [tax_query] => WP_Tax_Query Object
        (
            [queries] => Array
                (
                )

            [relation] => AND
            [table_aliases:protected] => Array
                (
                )

            [queried_terms] => Array
                (
                )

            [primary_table] => ph_posts
            [primary_id_column] => ID
        )

    [meta_query] => WP_Meta_Query Object
        (
            [queries] => Array
                (
                )

            [relation] => 
            [meta_table] => 
            [meta_id_column] => 
            [primary_table] => 
            [primary_id_column] => 
            [table_aliases:protected] => Array
                (
                )

            [clauses:protected] => Array
                (
                )

            [has_or_relation:protected] => 
        )

    [date_query] => 
    [queried_object] => WP_Post Object
        (
            [ID] => 6
            [post_author] => 1
            [post_date] => 2021-01-18 12:51:43
            [post_date_gmt] => 2021-01-18 12:51:43
            [post_content] => 
            [post_title] => Blog
            [post_excerpt] => 
            [post_status] => publish
            [comment_status] => closed
            [ping_status] => closed
            [post_password] => 
            [post_name] => blog
            [to_ping] => 
            [pinged] => 
            [post_modified] => 2021-01-18 12:51:43
            [post_modified_gmt] => 2021-01-18 12:51:43
            [post_content_filtered] => 
            [post_parent] => 0
            [guid] => https://princetonhydro.com/?page_id=6
            [menu_order] => 0
            [post_type] => page
            [post_mime_type] => 
            [comment_count] => 0
            [filter] => raw
        )

    [queried_object_id] => 6
    [request] => 
					SELECT SQL_CALC_FOUND_ROWS  ph_posts.ID
					FROM ph_posts 
					WHERE 1=1  AND (((ph_posts.post_title LIKE '{0e3439a2b461a39594051100555443c796a154c0e8f28c7d416ee6d6a56c0c3e}lake{0e3439a2b461a39594051100555443c796a154c0e8f28c7d416ee6d6a56c0c3e}') OR (ph_posts.post_excerpt LIKE '{0e3439a2b461a39594051100555443c796a154c0e8f28c7d416ee6d6a56c0c3e}lake{0e3439a2b461a39594051100555443c796a154c0e8f28c7d416ee6d6a56c0c3e}') OR (ph_posts.post_content LIKE '{0e3439a2b461a39594051100555443c796a154c0e8f28c7d416ee6d6a56c0c3e}lake{0e3439a2b461a39594051100555443c796a154c0e8f28c7d416ee6d6a56c0c3e}')))  AND (ph_posts.post_password = '')  AND ((ph_posts.post_type = 'post' AND (ph_posts.post_status = 'publish' OR ph_posts.post_status = 'acf-disabled')))
					
					ORDER BY ph_posts.menu_order, ph_posts.post_title LIKE '{0e3439a2b461a39594051100555443c796a154c0e8f28c7d416ee6d6a56c0c3e}lake{0e3439a2b461a39594051100555443c796a154c0e8f28c7d416ee6d6a56c0c3e}' DESC, ph_posts.post_date DESC
					LIMIT 0, 11
				
    [posts] => Array
        (
            [0] => WP_Post Object
                (
                    [ID] => 15367
                    [post_author] => 1
                    [post_date] => 2024-07-12 16:52:15
                    [post_date_gmt] => 2024-07-12 16:52:15
                    [post_content] => 

Nestled at the foot of the Blue Ridge Mountains, Smith Mountain Lake is the largest lake entirely within the Commonwealth of Virginia. Spanning over 20,000 acres with 500 miles of shoreline, the lake's northern and eastern boundary is marked by Bedford County, while Franklin and Pittsylvania counties define its southern and western edges. Created in 1963 by impounding the Roanoke River with the Smith Mountain Dam, the lake serves multiple purposes, including hydroelectric power, public water supply, and recreation.

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the area surrounding Smith Mountain Lake was predominantly rural farmland. In the 1980s, however, the lake's natural beauty, recreational appeal, and proximity to Roanoke and Lynchburg began to draw increased attention. This surge in interest sparked a boom in residential and commercial development, transforming Smith Mountain Lake into a vibrant and bustling community.

Today, Smith Mountain Lake not only provides electricity and drinking water, it is also home to 21,000 residents and stands as a premier recreational resource. Thousands flock to Smith Mountain Lake each year to enjoy boating, swimming, fishing, and other water activities. The lake's shores are now dotted with resorts, condominiums, year-round residences, and outdoor industry businesses. The lake's waters and shoreline also provide vital habitats for aquatic plants, animals, birds, and other terrestrial wildlife.

The rapid growth of this pristine lake community underscores the importance of effective environmental management to preserve water quality, strengthen the shoreline, manage stormwater runoff, and protect the local native biodiversity of the lake and its watershed.


Identifying and Addressing Harmful Algal Blooms

The lake is fed by two main tributaries—the Blackwater River and the Roanoke River. The Roanoke River, the larger of the two, drains a watershed that includes the Roanoke Metropolitan area, while the Blackwater River flows through mostly rural and agricultural land.

In 2023, a significant outbreak of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the Blackwater River subwatershed raised concerns for the Smith Mountain Lake Association (SMLA). These blooms, primarily driven by agricultural runoff, led to swimming advisories and highlighted the need for a comprehensive approach to managing and mitigating these environmental threats.

Recognizing the urgency of the situation, SMLA sought the expertise of Princeton Hydro. The mission: to investigate conditions that cause HABs, protect the lake from future outbreaks, and ensure the long-term health of this vital freshwater resource.


Laying the Groundwork

The project team’s approach began with a thorough review of historical water quality data. Collaborating with SMLA and regulatory bodies including the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (VDEQ), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Princeton Hydro compiled a comprehensive dataset. This historical context was crucial for understanding past trends and informing the 2024 Watershed Assessment. SMLA and Ferrum College contributed over 38 years of data through their Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Program, documenting crucial indicators such as nutrient levels, bacterial counts, and algal blooms. This extensive dataset has been essential in informing effective lake management practices and shaping strategies to address current environmental challenges.

Employing the MapShed model, the team carried out a comprehensive hydrologic and nutrient loading analysis of the Blackwater River subwatershed. They evaluated critical factors, including phosphorus, nitrogen, and sediment levels, to identify and prioritize areas requiring targeted nutrient and sediment management strategies.

To describe its basic function, the MapShed model applies pollutant loading rates to different land cover types, like low-density development or forested wetlands, based on their area. It then uses weather data, soil characteristics, and slopes to adjust these results. The model simulates daily pollutant loads over 30 years using actual climate records, providing monthly and annual outputs. Users can adjust various inputs, like septic system efficiency and population density, to see how the changes affect pollutant loads and water flow.

This analysis laid the foundation for determining effective, focused interventions to curb nutrient runoff and mitigate future HABs.


Understanding Cyanobacteria Behavior Through Innovative Research

In March 2024, an Overwintering Incubation Study was conducted to understand cyanobacteria behavior. Sediment and water samples were taken from six nearshore locations known for high cyanobacteria counts in Summer 2023. At each site, the team also documented temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, pH, chlorophyll-a, phycocyanin (PC), and phycoerythrin (PE).

The map below identifies the locations of each of the six sampling sites:

This map identifies the locations of each of the six sampling sites at Smith Mountain Lake [gallery link="none" columns="2" ids="15361,15363"]

For each sample, the lake water was filtered and then incubated with respective sediments to determine the presence and what types of algae may be overwintering. The water and sediment samples were incubated over a period of 15 days at a temperature of approximately 77 degrees Fahrenheit and a light intensity of 2800 lux.

After eight days, the water and sediment samples were removed from the incubator, slightly stirred and then in-situ measurements for PC and PE were collected. These two supplemental pigments are almost exclusively produced by cyanobacteria. While PC is associated with primarily planktonic genera, PE is more associated with benthic genera. Thus, measuring the concentration of these pigments can be used to estimate cyanobacteria biomass as well as provide guidance on the monitoring and management of HABs (planktonic vs. benthic).

After 15 days, the samples were again removed from the incubator, slightly stirred, and then measured for PC and PE to identify and count any overwintering cyanobacteria and determine all the types of algae present.

This study offered critical insights into the conditions that enable cyanobacteria to endure winter and proliferate during warmer months. By understanding the connection between overwintering cyanobacteria and HABs in the lake, we can enhance predictive capabilities and develop more effective management strategies. Two particularly notable findings from the study include:

1. Sediment Composition and Cyanobacteria Growth: Sandier sediments were not conducive to overwintering cyanobacteria, suggesting blooms in these areas likely originate elsewhere in the lake. Conversely, siltier and organic-rich sediments supported cyanobacteria growth, indicating a need for targeted in-lake management measures. 2. Predictive Tools for HABs: Routine measurement of pigments like PC and PE proved effective in estimating cyanobacteria biomass. This information is crucial for long-term monitoring and management, offering predictive tools for HAB events.

Looking Ahead: Holistic Approaches to Tackling HABs

Beyond the initial assessment on the Blackwater River, ongoing monitoring of Smith Mountain Lake’s water quality is crucial for understanding and managing the conditions that trigger HABs. SMLA’s Water Quality Monitoring Program developed and managed by Ferrum College continues the work of tracking the trophic state of the lake. Algal community composition, tributary sampling, and bacterial monitoring are part of this comprehensive 38-year effort. Consistent sampling and water quality monitoring can help identify cyanobacteria and akinetes, the dormant spores that lead to bloom formation.

Because the VDEQ budget historically contains no funding for inland waterway HAB research and response, SMLA actively lobbied the Virginia General Assembly for the allocation of $150,000 for the creation of a watershed study. This request was included in the State budget signed in March of 2024 and the work to develop the objectives and scope of the study is underway now.

Community involvement is also vital for maintaining Smith Mountain Lake as a cherished resource. To this end, SMLA has launched "Dock Watch," a new community science volunteer program designed to monitor HAB activity. Beginning in May of 2024, volunteers have been collecting water samples at select docks around the lake and are examining them to better understand cyanobacteria activity levels and trends. All of the water quality data collected at the lake is from main channel locations. The primary recreational contact with the lake water by residents is at their docks. This data is uploaded to NOAA's Phytoplankton Monitoring Network, contributing to a national database used for HAB research. This collective effort ensures rapid identification and tracking of HAB activity, benefiting both the local community and environmental research on a national level.

“This project exemplifies a holistic approach to lake management and environmental stewardship, integrating historical data, advanced modeling, and community engagement to prioritize and implement innovative strategies that effectively mitigate HABs and protect water quality,” said Chris L. Mikolajczyk, Princeton Hydro’s Senior Manager of Aquatics and Client Manager for Smith Mountain Lake. “This ongoing work highlights the importance of science-based interventions in preserving our precious natural resources.”

[gallery size="medium" link="none" ids="15377,15374,15373"]

The Smith Mountain Lake Association is a 501(c)3 nonprofit with the mission to keep Smith Mountain Lake clean and safe. Founded in 1969, SMLA is the longest serving advocate for the Smith Mountain Lake community, and its focused efforts help to retain the pristine beauty of the lake and the vibrant local economy. Click here to learn more and get involved.

Over the last two decades, the Princeton Hydro team has improved water quality in hundreds of ponds and lakes, restored many miles of rivers, and enhanced thousands of acres of ecosystems in the Northeast. From species surveys to water quality monitoring, our professionals perform comprehensive assessments in order to understand the landscape. Using tools like ArcGIS, we can map and model the watershed and arrive at holistic solutions for resource management. Our natural resources and lake management experts are complemented by our field team who utilize amphibious vehicles for mechanical invasive species removal, install aeration systems to improve water quality, and conduct natural lake treatments to manage algal blooms. We have secured millions of dollars in grant funding for watershed and ecological restoration projects on behalf of our clients.

Click here to learn about the Watershed Management Program in Somerset County, for which we recently helped secure grant funding from the New Jersey Highlands Water Protection and Planning Council.

[post_title] => Using Innovative & Integrated Strategies to Safeguard Smith Mountain Lake's Water Quality [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => smith-mountain-lake [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2024-07-13 20:43:32 [post_modified_gmt] => 2024-07-13 20:43:32 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://princetonhydro.com/?p=15367 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [1] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 15296 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2024-07-01 04:18:41 [post_date_gmt] => 2024-07-01 04:18:41 [post_content] =>

July is Lakes Appreciation Month, an annual celebration dedicated to highlighting the value and wonder of our lakes and reservoirs. Established by the North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) in 1998, this initiative aims to foster a greater appreciation for these vital water bodies and encourage action to safeguard them. Join us this year as we explore three exciting and meaningful ways to engage with, enjoy, and protect our lakes.


1. Explore and Enjoy Your Local Lakes

[gallery link="none" ids="15299,11826,15298"]

Dive into Lakes Appreciation Month by soaking up the beauty of your local lakes. Whether you’re a bird-watching enthusiast, a kayaking adventurer, a fishing fanatic, or a nature lover who enjoys serene walks, getting outdoors for some lakeside enjoyment is the perfect way to show your appreciation for these natural treasures.

While you're out enjoying your community lakes, participate in the NALMS "Show Your Lakes Appreciation" Photo Contest Challenge! Throughout July, share a #lakeselfie or photos of your friends, family and pets, enjoying or working on a lake or reservoir. Post your pictures on Facebook, Twitter, or Instagram with a fun or informative caption, the name of the lake, and the hashtag #LakesAppreciation. Be sure to tag NALMS in your post for a chance to win exciting prizes. The contest runs from July 1st to 31st, with winners announced on August 2nd.

Always remember to respect nature by following Leave No Trace principles, ensuring our lakes stay pristine and beautiful for everyone to enjoy.


2. Dive into Citizen Science: Monitor Your Lake

Monitoring the health of our lakes is essential for preserving their ecological balance and ensuring they remain vibrant, safe, and enjoyable.

You can contribute to this effort by joining the annual Secchi Dip-In, a citizen science project where volunteers across North America measure water clarity using a Secchi disk. This event, organized by NALMS, helps track changes in water quality over time. By participating, you contribute valuable data to support lake conservation efforts. It's simple to get involved: obtain a Secchi disk, measure the transparency of your lake, and submit your findings online. Check out our instruction video for more info:

[embed]https://m.youtube.com/shorts/zIkIx5uj8-8[/embed]

In addition to measuring water clarity, keep an eye out for harmful algal blooms (HABs). HABs can produce toxins that negatively impact water quality and aquatic life. To track and report HABs consider using the bloomWatch app, a crowdsourced citizen-science tool that allows you to take photos of possible blooms and submit them through the app, sending the information to relevant state officials for further action. Monitoring and reporting HABs is a crucial step in protecting our lakes.


3. Become a Steward for Your Local Lake

 

Volunteering for lake cleanups is a rewarding way to contribute to environmental stewardship, protect water quality, and enhance recreational spaces. Gather friends, family, or community members to spend a day picking up trash and debris around your favorite lake. This not only improves the health and beauty of the lake but also fosters a sense of community pride and collective responsibility. Many lake associations and environmental groups host regular cleanup events, so check their calendars or consider starting your own initiative.

For Lake Hopatcong, New Jersey's largest lake, the Lake Hopatcong Foundation, a long-time client partner of Princeton Hydro, offers a "Lake Hopatcong Water Scout" volunteer program. Water Scouts are responsible for identifying and removing instances of the invasive water chestnut species. Volunteers survey their assigned areas at least once between mid-June and mid-July. You can choose your preferred location to volunteer by reviewing the available areas on their website map. Reach out to your local lake association to find similar opportunities for cleanup and lake stewardship activities.


By raising awareness, fostering collaboration, and implementing effective strategies, we can work towards safeguarding the health and sustainability of our freshwater ecosystems. Let's come together this July to celebrate, protect, and cherish our lakes, ensuring they remain healthy and vibrant for future generations. For more ideas on how to celebrate Lakes Appreciation Month and to learn about NALMS, visit their website. For more information on Princeton Hydro's expansive lake and natural resource management services, go here.

  [post_title] => Make a Splash this July: Three Exciting Ways to Celebrate Lakes Appreciation Month [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => lakes-appreciation-month-2024 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2024-07-01 22:26:43 [post_modified_gmt] => 2024-07-01 22:26:43 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://princetonhydro.com/?p=15296 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [2] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 15090 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2024-06-11 18:25:13 [post_date_gmt] => 2024-06-11 18:25:13 [post_content] =>

By Dr. Fred Lubnow, Senior Technical Director of Ecological Services

As we reflect on the winter of 2023-2024, it's evident that New Jersey experienced another unusually mild season, mirroring the winter of 2022-2023. Notably, Lake Hopatcong, located in Sussex and Morris Counties, remained virtually ice-free throughout the winter, with only a brief period of minor ice formation in early January. This pattern was not isolated to Lake Hopatcong; many lakes across the state and the broader Mid-Atlantic region exhibited similar ice-free conditions. Such conditions can lead to increased algal and plant growth earlier in the year.

Adding to this, from January to early June 2024, 15 of New Jersey's 21 counties recorded precipitation levels 26% to 50% higher than their long-term averages. The remaining six counties, predominantly in the southern part of the state, had precipitation increases of 11% to 25% above their long-term normals. This heightened precipitation is significant as it can transport nutrients, most notably phosphorus and nitrogen, into water bodies, potentially fueling the growth of algae.

Compounding these factors, long-range climate models and trends suggest that the summer of 2024 could rank among the hottest on record. The combination of a mild winter, increased precipitation, and anticipated high summer temperatures sets the stage for conditions similar to those experienced in 2019, a year marked by widespread harmful algal blooms (HABs) in numerous lakes.

HABs, characterized by rapid overgrowths of cyanobacteria, present serious challenges to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. Cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, naturally occur in aquatic environments but can proliferate rapidly under warm, nutrient-rich conditions. These blooms pose risks to human health, wildlife, aquatic species, local economies, and the overall ecological balance. The interplay between climate change and HABs is undeniable: rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns foster conditions that exacerbate bloom occurrences.

Given these circumstances, it is crucial for lake managers and water utilities to adopt proactive measures. Early and consistent sampling efforts can detect cyanobacteria and akinetes, dormant spores that contribute to bloom formation. Additionally, reducing nutrient inputs, particularly phosphorus, into waterways is essential to prevent HABs. Princeton Hydro strongly recommends that lake managers, water utilities, and concerned community members closely monitor their lakes, reservoirs, and riverways to stay as proactive as possible in managing these valuable resources.

By raising awareness, fostering collaboration, and implementing effective strategies, we can work towards safeguarding the health and sustainability of our freshwater ecosystems. Together, we can address the challenges posed by HABs and protect the integrity of our water bodies. For more information about HABs, click here.


Dr. Fred Lubnow, Princeton Hydro’s Senior Technical Director, Ecological Services, is an expert in aquatic and watershed management, restoration ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and the use of benthic macroinvertebrate and fish in-stream bioassessment protocols. Dr. Lubnow has managed hundreds of lake projects and provides technical expertise for a variety of lake and watershed restoration projects.

His experience in lake and reservoir restoration includes the design and implementation of dredging, aeration, chemical control of nuisance species, nutrient inactivation (i.e. alum) and biomanipulation. His experience in watershed restoration includes the design and implementation of structural Best Management Practices (BMPs), the development of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) pollutant budgets, and the design, implementation and analysis of watershed-based monitoring programs.

[post_title] => Preparing for Potential Harmful Algal Blooms: An Urgent Call to Action for NJ's Lakes and Reservoirs [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => an-urgent-call-to-action-habs [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2024-06-11 18:25:13 [post_modified_gmt] => 2024-06-11 18:25:13 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://princetonhydro.com/?p=15090 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [3] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 12877 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2023-07-01 05:00:41 [post_date_gmt] => 2023-07-01 05:00:41 [post_content] =>

July is Lakes Appreciation Month! This national initiative was started in 1998 by the North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) with the goal of illuminating the value and importance of lakes and reservoirs, and encouraging people to take action in appreciating and protecting our precious water resources.

We’ve put together five tips to help you celebrate:

1. Embrace your Lake.

"Aeration System" by Chris Mikolajczyk, Photo Contest Submission  

Discover, Capture, and Share the Joy of Lakes Appreciation! Whether you're a birding enthusiast, a photography pro, a boating lover, a paddle-boarding champ, or someone who enjoys leisurely strolls, it's time get lakeside to enjoy your favorite activities. Stay in the loop with your local lake association's calendar and discover fun community events. If you're in the Berks County, Pennsylvania area, join PALMS on July 14 at Blue Marsh Lake for their community sunset paddle and float event. Capture your lake love and spread the joy - share your adventure photos on social media using #LakesAppreciation and inspire others to embrace lake appreciation too! Whatever fun adventure you choose, always remember to respect our natural landscape and treat it with care. Click here for a few tips to help you enjoy your Lakes Appreciation Month outings responsibly and sustainably. 


2. Take the Family BINGO Challenge.

Bingo Card designed by NALMS to celebrate Lakes Appreciation Month

To encourage everyone in the family to get outside together and enjoy the lakes that surround them, NALMS is  created a family BINGO Challenge game. The BINGO board features a variety of activities, like "Have a picnic at your favorite lake," "Go wildlife or bird watching," and "Pick up trash around your favorite lake." As you complete each activity,  you mark the square with an X. Once you complete all activities in a row or diagonally, you get “BINGO." Fill the card completely for maximum lake appreciation! This simple game is designed to stir creativity, curiosity and action, and is intended to act as  a reminder for us all to pause and appreciate something we often take for granted. Play it, share it, and enjoy!


3. Support Your Local Lake Association.

[gallery link="none" ids="12891,9124,8942"]

In celebration of Lakes Appreciation Month, lake associations nationwide are hosting family-fun events, volunteer opportunities and community gatherings. On July 14, Pennsylvania Lake Management Society invites you to join them at Blue Marsh Lake for a community sunset paddle/float. On July 20 at the Stone Water lakefront restaurant, Lake Hopatcong Foundation is hosting its 11th Anniversary Gala & Auction, which aims to bring together community members who are passionate about Lake Hopatcong, to have fun and raise funds critically needed to protect the environment and enhance the experience on and around Lake Hopatcong. Organize a community trash pick-up day at a nearby lake or get in touch with your local lake association to find out how you can get involved.


4. Join the National Secchi Dip-In.

The “Secchi Dip-In” is an annual citizen science event where lake-goers and associations across North America use a simple Secchi disk to monitor the transparency or turbidity of their local waterway. Created and managed by NALMS, volunteers have been submitting information during the annual Dip-In since 1994. NALMS invites you to join this international effort to track changes in water quality! Get all the Dip-In details here. And, for detailed instructions for how to use a Secchi disk, check out our tutorial.


5. Monitor Your Lake & Report HABs.

[gallery link="none" ids="11570,11578,11568"]

In addition to the Secchi Dip-In, you can support your favorite lake by identifying and reporting harmful algal blooms (HABs) and invasive species. And, the bloomWatch App is a great educational resource and tracking tool! By using the app on your smartphone, you can contribute to a nationwide community science program dedicated to tracking and documenting the occurrence of potential HABs. Click here for a brief video on how to use the bloomWatch app. And, for more information about HABs, click here to view a presentation given by Dr. Fred Lubnow at the NALMS 42nd Annual International Symposium.


Click here to learn about NALMS and get more ideas on how to celebrate your local lakes.

Princeton Hydro provides a broad range of award-winning lake management services. Click here to read about our work to reduce HABs and increase biodiversity in Lake Latonka, a 260-acre man-made freshwater lake in Mercer County, Pennsylvania.

[post_title] => July is #LakesAppreciation Month: 5 Tips to Help You Celebrate [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => lakes-appreciation-2023 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2024-01-18 02:49:13 [post_modified_gmt] => 2024-01-18 02:49:13 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://princetonhydro.com/?p=12877 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [4] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 12609 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2023-04-22 17:22:00 [post_date_gmt] => 2023-04-22 17:22:00 [post_content] =>

This article, written by Princeton Hydro team members, was recently published in the ANJEC Report, a quarterly magazine published by the Association of New Jersey Environmental Commissions.

Our lakes in New Jersey are an invaluable resource for clean drinking water, outdoor recreation, and agriculture and provide habitat for aquatic flora and fauna. Home to about 1,700 lakes, the “Garden State” is also the most densely populated state. Excess nutrients from fertilizers, roadway pollutants, overdevelopment, and failing septic systems can end up in our lakes and impair water quality. Larger rain events can also cause erosion and instability of streams, adding to the influx of more excess nutrients to our lakes and ponds. Changes in hydrology, water chemistry, biology, and/or physical properties in these complex ecosystems can have cascading consequences that can alter water quality and the surrounding ecosystem. For example, excess nutrients can fuel algal and plant growth in lakes and lead to issues like harmful algal blooms (HABs) or fish kills.

In order to ensure that we protect the overall health of our local waterbodies, it’s important that we look beyond just the lake itself. Implementing holistic watershed-based planning is a critical step in managing stormwater runoff, preventing the spread of HABs, and maintaining water quality. A watershed management plan defines and addresses existing or future water quality problems from both point sources and nonpoint sources of pollutants*. This approach addresses all the beneficial uses of a waterbody, the criteria needed to protect the use, and the strategies required to restore water quality or prevent degradation. When developing a watershed plan, we review all the tools in the toolbox and recommend a variety of best management practices to prevent nutrients from entering lakes or streams. Options include short- and long-term solutions such as green stormwater infrastructure, stream bank stabilization, and stormwater basin retrofits.

To reduce nutrient availability in lakes, one innovative tool in our toolbox is floating wetland islands (FWIs). FWIs are a low-cost, effective green infrastructure solution that are designed to mimic natural wetlands in a sustainable, efficient, and powerful way. They improve water quality by assimilating and removing excess nutrients; provide valuable ecological habitat for a variety of beneficial species; help mitigate wave and wind erosion impacts; provide an aesthetic element; and add significant biodiversity enhancement within open freshwater environments. FWIs are also highly effective in a range of waterbodies from big to small, from deep to shallow.

[caption id="attachment_4363" align="aligncenter" width="631"]This illustration, created by Staff Scientist Ivy Babson, conveys the functionality of a Floating Wetland Island This illustration, sketched by Princeton Hydro Staff Scientist Ivy Babson, conveys the functionality of a floating wetland island.[/caption]  

Typically, FWIs consist of a constructed floating mat, usually composed of woven, recycled plastic material, with vegetation planted directly into the material. The islands are then launched into the lake and anchored in place, and, once established, require very little maintenance.

It estimated that one 250-square-foot FWI has a surface area equal to approximately one acre of natural wetland. These floating ecosystems can remove approximately 10 pounds of phosphorus each year. To put that into perspective, one pound of phosphorus can produce 1,100 pounds of algae each year, so each 250-square-feet of FWI can potentially mitigate up to 11,000 pounds of algae.

In addition to removing phosphorus that can feed nuisance aquatic plant growth and algae, FWIs also provide excellent refuge habitat for beneficial forage fish and can provide protection from shoreline erosion.

Let's take a look at some examples of FWIs in action:

Lake Hopatcong

[gallery columns="2" link="none" ids="11071,10666"]  

Princeton Hydro has been working with Lake Hopatcong, New Jersey’s largest Lake, for 30+ years, restoring the lake, managing the watershed, reducing pollutant loading, and addressing invasive aquatic plants and nuisance algal blooms. Back in 2012, Lake Hopatcong became the first public lake in New Jersey to install FWIs. In the summer of 2022, nine more FWIs were installed in the lake with help from staff and volunteers from the Lake Hopatcong Foundation, Lake Hopatcong Commission, and Princeton Hydro. The lake’s Landing Channel and Ashley Cove were chosen for the installations because they are both fairly shallow and prone to weed growth. The installation of these floating wetland islands is part of a series of water quality initiatives on Lake Hopatcong funded by a NJDEP Harmful Algal Bloom Grant and 319(h) Grant awarded to Lake Hopatcong Commission and Lake Hopatcong Foundation.


Greenwood Lake

floating wetland island installation on greenwood lake in new jersey

Princeton Hydro partnered with the Greenwood Lake Commission (GWLC) on a FWI installation in Belcher's Creek, the main tributary of Greenwood Lake. The lake, a 1,920-acre waterbody located in both New Jersey and New York, is a highly valued ecological, economical, and recreational resource. The lake also serves as a headwater supply of potable water that flows to the Monksville Reservoir and eventually into the Wanaque Reservoir, where it supplies over 3 million people with drinking water.

The goal of the FWI Installation was to help decrease total phosphorus loading, improve water quality, and create important habitat for beneficial aquatic, insect, bird, and wildlife species. The project was partially funded by the NJDEP Water Quality Restoration Grants for Nonpoint Source Pollution Program under Section 319(h) of the federal Clean Water Act. GWLC was awarded one of NJDEP’s matching grants, which provided $2 in funding for every $1 invested by the grant applicant.


Harveys Lake

Volunteers install native plants in one of the FWIs installed in Harveys Lake. Photo by: Mark Moran, The Citizen’s Voice.

Measuring 630+ acres, Harveys Lake is the largest natural lake (by volume) in Pennsylvania and is one of the most heavily used lakes in the area. It is classified as a high quality - cold water fishery habitat (HQ-CWF) and is designated for protection under the classification. Since 2002, The Borough of Harveys Lake and Harveys Lake Environmental Advisory Council has worked with Princeton Hydro on a variety of lake management efforts focused around maintaining high water quality conditions, strengthening stream banks and shorelines, and managing stormwater runoff. Five floating wetland islands were installed in Harveys Lake to assimilate and reduce nutrients already in the lake. The islands were placed in areas with high concentrations of nutrients, placed 50 feet from the shoreline and tethered in place with steel cables and anchored. The FWIs were funded by PADEP.


Wesley Lake and Sunset Lake

Working with the Deal Lake Commission (DLC), Princeton Hydro designed and installed 12 floating wetland islands at two lakes in Asbury Park, NJ. In order to complete the installation of the floating wetland islands, our team worked with the DLC to train and assist over 30 volunteers to plant plugs in the islands and launch them into the two lakes. Our experts helped disseminate knowledge to the volunteers, not only about how to install the floating wetland islands, but how they scientifically worked to remove excess nutrients from the water. With assistance from Princeton Hydro, DLC acquired the 12 floating islands – six for Wesley Lake and six for Sunset Lake – through a Clean Water Act Section 319(h) grant awarded by NJDEP.


In addition to the direct environmental benefits of FWIs, the planting events themselves, which usually involve individuals from the local lake communities, have long-lasting positive impacts. When community members come together to help plant FWIs, it gives them a deepened sense of ownership and strengthens their connection to the lake. This, in turn, encourages continued stewardship of the watershed and creates a broader awareness of how human behaviors impact the lake and its water quality. And, real water quality improvements begin at the watershed level with how people treat their land.

For more information on watershed planning or installing FWI in your community, click here to contact us. To learn more about ANJEC, go here.

- *U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2008. Handbook for Developing Watershed Plans to Restore and Protect Our Waters.

[post_title] => Floating Wetland Islands: An Effective, Affordable, and Sustainable Lake Management Tool [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => floating-wetland-islands-anjec-2023 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2023-08-14 10:41:41 [post_modified_gmt] => 2023-08-14 10:41:41 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://princetonhydro.com/?p=12609 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [5] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 12419 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2023-03-17 18:44:47 [post_date_gmt] => 2023-03-17 18:44:47 [post_content] => [caption id="attachment_12423" align="aligncenter" width="901"] Harveys Lake, Luzerne County, PA in February 2023 (Photo by Jason Miller)[/caption]   By Dr. Fred Lubnow, Senior Technical Director of Ecological Services

The Winter of 2022 – 2023 is turning out to be a mild one, at least in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Anecdotally, there has been no measurable amount of snowfall in 2023 as of early March. In northeastern Pennsylvania, January and February 2023 mean monthly temperatures were 9.6 and 7.5 degrees warmer relative to their long-term respective average values. In northern New Jersey, January and February 2023 mean monthly temperatures were 11.9 and 5.6 degrees warmer relative to their respective long-term average values (Northeast Regional Climate Center CLIMOD database).

[caption id="attachment_12421" align="alignleft" width="239"] Lake Hopatcong, Sussex – Morris Counties, NJ (Photo by Donna Macalle-Holly, Lake Hopatcong Foundation)[/caption]

This has had a profound impact on lake ecosystems. For example, in early 2023, both Harveys Lake (Luzerne County, PA) and Lake Hopatcong (Morris and Sussex Counties, NJ) have had no lake-wide ice cover. While measurable amounts of both snowfall and ice cover are still possible in the remaining weeks of March, it highly unlikely that such conditions would persist for weeks. Such ice-free conditions on our lakes, ponds and reservoirs will certainly have a profound impact on these ecosystems as we move into the 2023 growing season.

Algae May Grow Earlier in the Season

Undoubtably, current conditions are at a minimum partially attributed to climate change and will have a direct impact on the upcoming 2023 growing season. In the absence of ice, and more importantly snow-cover over the ice, aquatic plants and algae can begin to grow earlier in the season. Some plants, such as the invasive species curly-leaved pondweed (Potamogeton crispus), prefer cooler temperatures and tend to attain their highest densities in the spring and early summer. However, under such ice-free conditions, we have seen curly-leaved pondweed growing along the bottom of New Jersey lakes as early as February. This can result in more nuisance plant densities earlier in the year.

While most cyanobacteria, the group of algae known to have the potential to produce cyanotoxins, tend to attain their maximum growth and biomass over the hot summer months, there are several genera that are more tolerant of cool temperatures. For example, one filamentous genus, Aphanizomenon, is one of the first cyanobacteria to appear in the plankton in the spring. Indeed, over the last few years Aphanizomenon has been appearing earlier in the year and at higher densities in many of the lakes monitored and managed by Princeton Hydro. Another cyanobacteria known to bloom in cooler waters is Coelosphaerium. Coupled with slightly warmer temperatures over the late winter and early spring, cyanobacteria blooms could become more common and larger in magnitude, earlier in the year. Such blooms are frequently called Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs).

Many cyanobacteria produce resting spores called akinetes during conditions of environmental stress, such as colder temperatures and desiccation. These akinetes settle to the bottom and are re-activated as water temperatures increase. Warmer late winter and early spring temperatures, particular over the sediments, could mean more akinetes actively growing into vegetative cells earlier in the growing season.

Milder Winters Could Lead to New Invasive Species

[caption id="attachment_12439" align="alignright" width="476"] At a lake in Somerset County on March 7, 2023, Spirogyra (a green mat algae that prefers cold waters) is present and curly-leaved pondweed is already growing and well established. Photo by Princeton Hydro.[/caption]

Last year (2022), was the first time that the cyanobacteria Cylindrospermopsis was identified in Lake Hopatcong. In fact, this genus was the most abundant cyanobacteria in Lake Hopatcong during our July and August sampling events, but was no longer found by the early October sampling event. The Cylindrospermopsis found in Lake Hopatcong may be an invasive species that historically has been found in tropic and subtropic waterbodies. However, over the years, this cyanobacterium has been found in temperate waterbodies. Milder and warmer winters may mean more invasive species such as Cylindrospermopsis appearing in Mid-Atlantic waterbodies.

What Should You Do?

In the absence of ice and snow-cover to put the sediments in the dark and prevent photosynthesis, coupled with warmer temperatures in the late winter and early spring, may lead to more aquatic plant and algal growth earlier in the year. So what should be done about this?

1. Sample Early: March or April

First, we recommend initiating sampling earlier in the year, sometime in March or April; do not wait until May to begin sampling. Second, in addition to sampling the surface waters, sampling should also be conducted in near-shore areas, immediately above sediments and at the sediment-water interface. Samples should be examined under the microscope for the presence of akinetes and/or inactive colonies of cyanobacteria. Third, near-shore areas should also be surveyed for the presence of submerged, aquatic plants, in particular invasive species such as curly-leaved pondweed or hydrilla.

2. Encourage Residents to Reduce Nutrients Entering the Waterway

Finally, while most climate models indicate that HABs will more than likely increase in warmer conditions, the magnitude of this response will be strongly dependent on the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus. While phosphorus will drive the growth of cyanobacteria, the availability of external sources of nitrogen can increase the probability of a HAB producing cyanotoxins such as microcystins, which is a nitrogen “heavy” molecule.

Thus, if colonies of cyanobacteria or akinetes are found in the sediments over the spring, the lake community and stakeholders should be informed and efforts should be implemented to reduce the availability of nutrients such as using non-phosphorus fertilizers, picking up pet wastes, goose management, routine pump-outs of septic systems once every three years, where possible stabilize exposed soil by planting native vegetation and consider the use of green infrastructure such as rain gardens. By letting the community know that cyanobacteria may be lurking on the sediments over the spring season, it may mobilize efforts to implement both in-lake and watershed measures to minimize the potential development of HABs.


Princeton Hydro provides pond and lake management and monitoring services to hundreds of waterbodies in the Northeast.  If you would like to learn more about our services for your community, please send us a message through our website.

Dr. Fred Lubnow, Princeton Hydro's Senior Technical Director, Ecological Services, is an expert in aquatic and watershed management, restoration ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and the use of benthic macroinvertebrate and fish in-stream bioassessment protocols. Dr. Lubnow has managed hundreds of lake projects and provides technical expertise for a variety of lake and watershed restoration projects.

His experience in lake and reservoir restoration includes the design and implementation of dredging, aeration, chemical control of nuisance species, nutrient inactivation (i.e. alum) and biomanipulation. His experience in watershed restoration includes the design and implementation of structural Best Management Practices (BMPs), the development of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) pollutant budgets, and the design, implementation and analysis of watershed-based monitoring programs.

[post_title] => Mild Winter in Mid-Atlantic Raises Concerns For Lakes [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => guest-blog-by-dr-fred-lubnow [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2023-03-17 18:44:47 [post_modified_gmt] => 2023-03-17 18:44:47 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://princetonhydro.com/?p=12419 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [6] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 12199 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2023-01-25 18:13:19 [post_date_gmt] => 2023-01-25 18:13:19 [post_content] =>

We are pleased to announce that the Lake Hopatcong Foundation (LHF) received the prestigious New Jersey Governor's Environmental Excellence Award in the Environmental Education category for its innovative floating classroom program.

The LHF's floating classroom - a custom-built 40-foot education vessel, named ‘Study Hull’ - gives students an interactive, hands-on education experience to explore Lake Hopatcong, learn about freshwater ecology, and discuss how to protect the watershed.

During its maiden voyage field trip, which was held on May 21 2018, fourth-graders from Nixon Elementary and Kennedy Elementary schools utilized the boat’s laboratory instruments to study water hydrology, temperatures, plankton, and dissolved oxygen levels.Princeton Hydro helped the LHF design a teaching curriculum on water quality, and members of our team trained the LHF staff and volunteers on the curriculum and demonstrated various water quality monitoring techniques that could be conducted with the students.

The floating classroom is equipped with laboratory instruments on which the students can study water hydrology, temperatures, plankton, and dissolved oxygen levels. Course instructors assist students in performing tests and experiments designed to help them learn about the general health of the lake. They also discuss the impacts that stormwater runoff and nonpoint source pollutants have on the lake, and how they can protect the lake’s water quality and be good stewards of the water.

The Governor’s Environmental Excellence Awards are given each year to individuals and organizations that demonstrate commitment and leadership on a variety of environmental issues, including environmental justice, climate change, sustainability, education, and protection of natural resources. The Governor's Award is a testament to the hard work and dedication of the LHF and the educators who run the floating classroom. It is also a testament to the value of experiential learning and the importance of connecting young people to the natural world.

Chris L. Mikolajczyk, CLM, demonstrates to floating classroom participants how to use a Secchi Disks to determine the depth to which light is able to penetrate the water’s surface.“It’s really important to get kids interested in science at an early age and teach them about their surrounding environment – where their drinking water comes from, how it could possibly get polluted, the impacts that pollution then has on the lake’s ecosystem, and what steps can be made to protect the lake’s water quality," said Princeton Hydro Senior Aquatic Ecologist Chris L. Mikolajczyk, CLM, one of the team members responsible for developing the floating classroom curriculum. "We are proud to partner with the Lake Hopatcong Foundation and extend to them our sincerest congratulations on receiving the Governor's Environmental Excellence Award for their innovative and unique floating classroom initiative. Well deserved!”

The 23rd Annual Governor’s Environmental Excellence Awards were announced virtually by the Commissioner of Environmental Protection Shawn M. LaTourette. The video recording is available on DEP’s YouTube channel.

[embed]https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=2&v=yayIyRj9r3w&embeds_euri=https%3A%2F%2Fdep.nj.gov%2F&source_ve_path=MzY4NDIsMjg2NjI&feature=emb_logo[/embed]

Lake Hopatcong, New Jersey's largest lake, has one of the longest, continuous, long-term ecological databases in New Jersey; almost 30 years of consistently collected water quality data. The data is crucial in assessing the overall health of the lake and proactively guiding its management, identifying and addressing emerging threats, documenting project success, and confirming compliance with New Jersey State Water Quality standards.

The LHF works to foster a vibrant and healthy Lake Hopatcong and its surrounding community through a variety of programs and initiatives in the areas of environment, education, community and historical preservation, public safety, recreation, and arts and culture. The LHF and Princeton Hydro are longtime partners with history dating back to 1983. Princeton Hydro’s recent work for Lake Hopatcong includes the implementation of green infrastructure stormwater management measures, installation of floating wetland islands to improve water quality, and invasive aquatic plant species management programs, community educational training, and surveys. To learn more about LHF, check out our Client Spotlight blog:

[visual-link-preview encoded="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"] [post_title] => Lake Hopatcong Foundation's Floating Classroom Receives New Jersey Governor's Environmental Excellence Award [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => lake-hopatcong-foundations-floating-classroom-receives-new-jersey-governors-environmental-excellence-award [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2023-01-25 19:50:39 [post_modified_gmt] => 2023-01-25 19:50:39 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://princetonhydro.com/?p=12199 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [7] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 11974 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2022-12-07 22:02:40 [post_date_gmt] => 2022-12-07 22:02:40 [post_content] =>

The North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) held its 42nd Annual International Symposium from November 14–17 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Water resource professionals, researchers, students and practitioners came together to share ideas and learn about managing and protecting lakes and their watersheds.

[gallery link="none" columns="4" ids="14363,11947,11948,14362"]

This year’s conference, which was titled, “Leveraging Experience to Manage Diverse Lakes, Landscapes, and People,” featured an exhibitor hall, networking events, and a variety of presentations and workshops. Princeton Hydro, a proud contributing sponsor of the conference, led four presentations and one workshop; below, we provide a free download of each.


Princeton Hydro’s Senior Aquatic Ecologist and NALMS Board of Directors President Chris L. Mikolajczyk, CLM gave the following two presentations:

Click here to learn more and download the presentations.

Dr. Fred Lubnow, Senior Technical Director, Ecological Services for Princeton Hydro presented on “The Development of Site-Specific Harmful Algal Bloom (HABs) Management Plans.”

Click here to learn more and download the presentation.

Princeton Hydro Senior Aquatic Ecologist Paul Cooper led a presentation titled, “A 30-Year Assessment of Internal Phosphorus Loading, Nutrient Load Management, and Climate Change at Lake Hopatcong.”

Click here to learn more and download the presentation.

On the first day of the conference, Chris and Fred led a half-day workshop about developing Harmful Algal Blooms Management and Restoration Plans for Beaches and Marinas, which are designed as part of a larger, all-encompassing Watershed Implementation Plan. The workshop provided both in-lake, near-shore, and local watershed solutions to preserve water quality and protect the health of people and pets utilizing these waterbodies.

Click here to learn more and download the presentation.

A daring group of symposium participants bundled up and braved the cold temperatures for the Clean Lakes Classic 5k Run, which Princeton Hydro sponsored. The point-to-point course followed along the Mississippi River, through city greenways, and around snowy Minneapolis neighborhoods.

[gallery columns="4" ids="11943,11928,11927,14365"]

We’re also excited to announce that Chris L. Mikolajczyk won this year’s International Symposium photo contest for this stunning image he captured during a recent visit to Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado. The photo is titled “Aquatic Plant Management: No Permits Needed!”

Congratulations, Chris! . . . Founded in 1980, NALMS is dedicated to forging partnerships among citizens, scientists, and professionals to foster the management and protection of lakes and reservoirs for today and tomorrow. For more information about NALMS and upcoming events, click here. To read about upcoming events that Princeton Hydro is participating in and sponsoring, click here. [post_title] => FREE DOWNLOADS: Presentations from the North American Lake Management Society International Symposium [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => free-presentation-downloads-nalms-2022 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2024-01-19 01:14:03 [post_modified_gmt] => 2024-01-19 01:14:03 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://princetonhydro.com/?p=11974 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [8] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 11220 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2022-08-30 10:25:05 [post_date_gmt] => 2022-08-30 10:25:05 [post_content] =>

The Highlands Region of Northern New Jersey is an 800,000-acre area covering approximately 1,200 square miles and made up of 88 municipalities in seven counties. The Region is an essential source of drinking water for over 5.4 million New Jersey residents.

The New Jersey Highlands Water Protection and Planning Council (Highlands Council) is a regional planning agency that works in partnership with municipalities and counties in the Highlands Region to help those communities take a proactive and regional approach to watershed protection.

Historically, private lake associations and municipalities have worked autonomously to address water quality issues and develop improvement plans. Working together, however, and taking a regional approach to lake and watershed management has much farther-reaching benefits. Taking an integrated approach helps improve water quality and reduce incidents of aquatic invasive species and harmful algal blooms (HABs) not just in one waterbody, but throughout an entire region of lakes and streams.

The Highlands Council was created as part of the New Jersey Highlands Water Protection and Planning Act (the Highlands Act), which was signed into law in 2004. It has funded numerous water-quality-related planning grants throughout the region.

Today, we’re excited to announce that the Township of Byram in Sussex County, New Jersey, is the latest municipality to receive Highlands Council grant approval for a Lake and Watershed Management Program for ten of the Township's waterbodies. The Township chose to engage the services of Princeton Hydro to support the project work. Princeton Hydro also assisted the Township in pursuing the Highlands Council grant opportunity and securing the grant funding.

“Byram Township, the Township of Lakes, is excited to have received the grant funding from the Highlands Council providing the opportunity to develop a Lake and Watershed Management Plan with the goal of improving water quality within the Township’s watersheds," said Joseph Sabatini, Township Manager. "Having an adopted plan will open the door to opportunities to grant funding to implement the recommend improvements.”

 

The Township of Byram

Located 55 miles from New York City, the Township of Byram has a population of about 8,000. It is locally known as “The Township of Lakes” because the community has two dozen or more lakes and ponds within its borders, an area of about 22.7 square miles.

The Township chose to engage the services of Princeton Hydro to assist in designing a scope of work for a municipal-wide holistic watershed management plan that identifies and prioritizes watershed management techniques and measures that are best suited for immediate and long-term implementation.

Given the large number of waterbodies in the area, and in an effort to keep the first phase of the Highlands Council funded Lake and Watershed Management Program to a reasonable scope, a selection process occurred with input from the Township offices, the Township Environmental Commission, Princeton Hydro and ultimately, the Highlands Council.

Specifically, the grant guidelines are “to establish tiers of lake management appropriate to management strategies that help protect lake water quality and community value from the impacts of present and future development,” and lake management programs are instructed to focus efforts on lakes that are greater than ten acres in size.

The ten waterbodies included in the Township of Byram's Lake and Watershed Management Program are: Cranberry Lake, Lake Lackawanna, Johnson Lake, Forest Lake, Panther Lake, Wolf Lake, Wright Pond, Jefferson Lake, Stag Pond, and Kofferls Pond.

For the first phase of the Lake and Watershed Management Program, Princeton Hydro will conduct a number of analyses, including watershed modeling; hydrologic and pollutant loading analysis; watershed-based and in-lake water quality assessments; and tropic state assessments.

The assessment aims to:
  • Identify, quantify and prioritize the watershed-based factors which may cause eutrophication,
  • Identify the watershed management measures needed to address general causes of water quality impairments,
  • Identify the relative cost of the recommended general watershed management measures,
  • Identify and quantify the lake-based factors which may cause eutrophication, and
  • Prioritize and schedule the implementation of recommended watershed management measures.

Once all the lab data is processed, the watershed modeling is complete, and historical data reviewed, Princeton Hydro will create a General Assessment Report that will summarize the data/observations and identify which watershed management techniques and measures are best suited for immediate or long-term implementation.

"We're thrilled to be partnered with Bryam on this important initiative to bring together under one holistic management plan in one form or another ten private and public lakes throughout the township," said Princeton Hydro’s Senior Manager, Christopher Mikolajczyk, a Certified Lake Manager and lead designer for this initiative. "Byram is the fourth Highlands based Township I have worked with to take this regional approach, which will continue to make a significant impact in managing stormwater, improving water quality, and mitigating HABs throughout the Highlands region of New Jersey."

 

Regional Approach to Lake Management 

[gallery link="none" ids="8527,4168,8523"]

This regional approach to lake management has been implemented by Princeton Hydro in other New Jersey Highland communities. In 2019, the Borough of Ringwood became the first municipality in the state of New Jersey to take a regional approach to private lake management through a public-private partnership with four lake associations within six lakes.

Ringwood ultimately became a model for similar Highlands Council grants within the region, including West Milford Township, for which the Highlands Council approved funding in 2020 to support a watershed assessment of 22 private and public lakes. Rockaway Township in Morris County also received Highlands Council grant approval in 2021 to complete a Lake Management Planning Study for 11 lakes. Princeton Hydro authored the scopes of work for these projects.

To learn more about Princeton Hydro’s natural resource management services, click here. And, click here to learn more about Highlands Council and available grant funding.

[post_title] => Township of Byram Receives Highlands Council Grant Funding for a Lake and Watershed Management Program [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => township-of-byram [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-08-29 18:46:33 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-08-29 18:46:33 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://princetonhydro.com/?p=11220 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [9] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 11034 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2022-07-01 06:24:42 [post_date_gmt] => 2022-07-01 06:24:42 [post_content] => July is Lakes Appreciation Month! This national initiative was started in 1998 by the North American Lake Management Society (NALMS) as a way to draw attention to the value and importance of lakes and reservoirs, and encourage people to take action in appreciating and protecting our precious water resources. We’ve put together four tips to help you celebrate:

1. Love Your Lake.

Whether you enjoy birding, photography, boating, paddle boarding or simply taking a leisurely stroll in nature, one of the best ways to celebrate your local lake is getting outside to enjoy your favorite lake-related outdoor activities. Check your local lake association calendar for upcoming community events. Invite a friend or family member out for a day of environmentally-friendly fishing. If you're in Pennsylvania, consider joining PALMS at Blue Marsh Lake for a community full moon paddle-out. If you photograph your adventures, share them on social media using the hashtag: #LakesAppreciation, and hopefully you’ll inspire others to show their lake appreciation too.


2. Join the Secchi Dip-In.

The “Secchi Dip-In” is an annual citizen science event where lake-goers and associations across North America use a simple Secchi disk to monitor the transparency or turbidity of their local waterway. Created and managed by NALMS, volunteers have been submitting information during the annual Dip-In since 1994. NALMS invites you to join this international effort to track changes in water quality! Get all the Dip-In details here. And, for detailed instructions for how to use a Secchi disk, check out this NALMS student video.


3. Enter the NALMS Short Clips Video Contest.

NALMS is hosting a Lakes Appreciation Short Clips Video Contest. Create a 140-second video that best illustrates your love for lakes and inspires others to appreciate lakes too! Submit your clip to the NALMS Twitter feed (@NALMStweets) using the hashtag: #LakesAppreciation. A Twitter poll of the general public will be used to determine the winner. First place gets a $50 Visa gift card. The submission deadline is July 31, polling will run through the month of August, and the winner will be announced August 31, 2022. Click here for more details. And, to see the winning entries from a previous Lakes Appreciation photo contest, go here.


4. Learn About Lakes.

[embed]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xsJBSNZ26no[/embed]

You can support your favorite lake by educating yourself about how to monitor the condition of the lake, identify harmful algal blooms (HABs) and invasive species, and engage in activities that protect water quality and improve fish and wildlife habitat. Consider becoming a member of or volunteering for your lake or watershed association. Learn how to track and report HABs. And, take part in educational opportunities to learn about lake management, like our recent live Q&A session with Princeton Hydro's resident lake experts Dr. Fred Lubnow and Chris L. Mikolajczyk, CLM.


To learn about NALMS and get more ideas on how to celebrate your local lakes, click here.

If you’re interested in learning more about Princeton Hydro’s broad range of award-winning lake management services, click here. And, if you're interested in reading about our work to reduce HABs and increase biodiversity in Lake Latonka, click here.

[post_title] => July is Lakes Appreciation Month: Four Tips to Help You Celebrate [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => lakes-appreciation-month-2022 [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-07-12 15:57:56 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-07-12 15:57:56 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://princetonhydro.com/?p=11034 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [10] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 10753 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2022-05-11 13:31:42 [post_date_gmt] => 2022-05-11 13:31:42 [post_content] =>

The New York State Federation of Lake Associations (NYSFOLA) held its Annual Conference in Lake George, NY on April 29th and 30th.

This year’s conference, which was titled, “Maximizing Your Lake Data,” featured a diverse exhibitor hall, networking events, a silent auction, a student poster session and a variety of presentations and workshops. Princeton Hydro, a proud sponsor of the conference, led four presentations and exhibited.

[gallery link="none" ids="10811,10812,10810"]  

Below, we provide more information and a free download of each presentation:

Presentation Title: The Value of Developing a Long Term Database for Lakes and their Management Presentation By:  Senior Technical Director of Ecological Services, Dr. Fred Lubnow Learn more and download the presentation.  

Presentation Title: Assessing Trends and Quantifying the Internal Phosphorous Load of Lake Hopatcong Utilizing a 30-Year Continuous Database

Presentation By: Princeton Hydro Environmental Scientist Pat Rose, Senior Aquatic Ecologist Paul Cooper and Senior Technical Director of Ecological Services Dr. Fred Lubnow Learn more and download the presentation.   Presentation Title: CSLAP and Customized Monitoring - How Additional Data is Helping Sleepy Hollow Lake Presentation By: Princeton Hydro Senior Project Manager Chris Mikolajczyk, CLM & Staff Scientist Jesse Smith along with Laurel Wolfe of The Association of Property Owners of Sleepy Hollow Lake Learn more and download the presentation.   Presentation Title: The Importance of Hands-On Field Education and Exposure with Regards to Monitoring Data Presentation By:  Princeton Hydro Senior Project Manager Chris Mikolajczyk, CLM and Dr. Curt Stager of Paul Smiths College Learn more and download the presentation.    

NYSFOLA was founded in 1983 by a coalition of lake associations concerned about water quality, invasive species, and other issues facing New York's lakes. NYSFOLA, which has 200+ members across the state, is the only NY-statewide voice for lakes and lake associations. NYSFOLA is an Affiliate of the North American Lake Management Society, for which Chris Mikolajczyk is the current Board President.

For more information about NYSFOLA and the Annual Conference, click here. To read about some of Princeton Hydro's upcoming events, click here.

[post_title] => FREE DOWNLOADS: New York State Federation of Lake Associations Annual Conference Presentations [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => free-downloads-nysfola-presentations [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2022-05-11 20:11:31 [post_modified_gmt] => 2022-05-11 20:11:31 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://princetonhydro.com/?p=10753 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) ) [post_count] => 11 [current_post] => -1 [before_loop] => 1 [in_the_loop] => [post] => WP_Post Object ( [ID] => 15367 [post_author] => 1 [post_date] => 2024-07-12 16:52:15 [post_date_gmt] => 2024-07-12 16:52:15 [post_content] =>

Nestled at the foot of the Blue Ridge Mountains, Smith Mountain Lake is the largest lake entirely within the Commonwealth of Virginia. Spanning over 20,000 acres with 500 miles of shoreline, the lake's northern and eastern boundary is marked by Bedford County, while Franklin and Pittsylvania counties define its southern and western edges. Created in 1963 by impounding the Roanoke River with the Smith Mountain Dam, the lake serves multiple purposes, including hydroelectric power, public water supply, and recreation.

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, the area surrounding Smith Mountain Lake was predominantly rural farmland. In the 1980s, however, the lake's natural beauty, recreational appeal, and proximity to Roanoke and Lynchburg began to draw increased attention. This surge in interest sparked a boom in residential and commercial development, transforming Smith Mountain Lake into a vibrant and bustling community.

Today, Smith Mountain Lake not only provides electricity and drinking water, it is also home to 21,000 residents and stands as a premier recreational resource. Thousands flock to Smith Mountain Lake each year to enjoy boating, swimming, fishing, and other water activities. The lake's shores are now dotted with resorts, condominiums, year-round residences, and outdoor industry businesses. The lake's waters and shoreline also provide vital habitats for aquatic plants, animals, birds, and other terrestrial wildlife.

The rapid growth of this pristine lake community underscores the importance of effective environmental management to preserve water quality, strengthen the shoreline, manage stormwater runoff, and protect the local native biodiversity of the lake and its watershed.


Identifying and Addressing Harmful Algal Blooms

The lake is fed by two main tributaries—the Blackwater River and the Roanoke River. The Roanoke River, the larger of the two, drains a watershed that includes the Roanoke Metropolitan area, while the Blackwater River flows through mostly rural and agricultural land.

In 2023, a significant outbreak of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the Blackwater River subwatershed raised concerns for the Smith Mountain Lake Association (SMLA). These blooms, primarily driven by agricultural runoff, led to swimming advisories and highlighted the need for a comprehensive approach to managing and mitigating these environmental threats.

Recognizing the urgency of the situation, SMLA sought the expertise of Princeton Hydro. The mission: to investigate conditions that cause HABs, protect the lake from future outbreaks, and ensure the long-term health of this vital freshwater resource.


Laying the Groundwork

The project team’s approach began with a thorough review of historical water quality data. Collaborating with SMLA and regulatory bodies including the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (VDEQ), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Princeton Hydro compiled a comprehensive dataset. This historical context was crucial for understanding past trends and informing the 2024 Watershed Assessment. SMLA and Ferrum College contributed over 38 years of data through their Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Program, documenting crucial indicators such as nutrient levels, bacterial counts, and algal blooms. This extensive dataset has been essential in informing effective lake management practices and shaping strategies to address current environmental challenges.

Employing the MapShed model, the team carried out a comprehensive hydrologic and nutrient loading analysis of the Blackwater River subwatershed. They evaluated critical factors, including phosphorus, nitrogen, and sediment levels, to identify and prioritize areas requiring targeted nutrient and sediment management strategies.

To describe its basic function, the MapShed model applies pollutant loading rates to different land cover types, like low-density development or forested wetlands, based on their area. It then uses weather data, soil characteristics, and slopes to adjust these results. The model simulates daily pollutant loads over 30 years using actual climate records, providing monthly and annual outputs. Users can adjust various inputs, like septic system efficiency and population density, to see how the changes affect pollutant loads and water flow.

This analysis laid the foundation for determining effective, focused interventions to curb nutrient runoff and mitigate future HABs.


Understanding Cyanobacteria Behavior Through Innovative Research

In March 2024, an Overwintering Incubation Study was conducted to understand cyanobacteria behavior. Sediment and water samples were taken from six nearshore locations known for high cyanobacteria counts in Summer 2023. At each site, the team also documented temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductivity, pH, chlorophyll-a, phycocyanin (PC), and phycoerythrin (PE).

The map below identifies the locations of each of the six sampling sites:

This map identifies the locations of each of the six sampling sites at Smith Mountain Lake [gallery link="none" columns="2" ids="15361,15363"]

For each sample, the lake water was filtered and then incubated with respective sediments to determine the presence and what types of algae may be overwintering. The water and sediment samples were incubated over a period of 15 days at a temperature of approximately 77 degrees Fahrenheit and a light intensity of 2800 lux.

After eight days, the water and sediment samples were removed from the incubator, slightly stirred and then in-situ measurements for PC and PE were collected. These two supplemental pigments are almost exclusively produced by cyanobacteria. While PC is associated with primarily planktonic genera, PE is more associated with benthic genera. Thus, measuring the concentration of these pigments can be used to estimate cyanobacteria biomass as well as provide guidance on the monitoring and management of HABs (planktonic vs. benthic).

After 15 days, the samples were again removed from the incubator, slightly stirred, and then measured for PC and PE to identify and count any overwintering cyanobacteria and determine all the types of algae present.

This study offered critical insights into the conditions that enable cyanobacteria to endure winter and proliferate during warmer months. By understanding the connection between overwintering cyanobacteria and HABs in the lake, we can enhance predictive capabilities and develop more effective management strategies. Two particularly notable findings from the study include:

1. Sediment Composition and Cyanobacteria Growth: Sandier sediments were not conducive to overwintering cyanobacteria, suggesting blooms in these areas likely originate elsewhere in the lake. Conversely, siltier and organic-rich sediments supported cyanobacteria growth, indicating a need for targeted in-lake management measures. 2. Predictive Tools for HABs: Routine measurement of pigments like PC and PE proved effective in estimating cyanobacteria biomass. This information is crucial for long-term monitoring and management, offering predictive tools for HAB events.

Looking Ahead: Holistic Approaches to Tackling HABs

Beyond the initial assessment on the Blackwater River, ongoing monitoring of Smith Mountain Lake’s water quality is crucial for understanding and managing the conditions that trigger HABs. SMLA’s Water Quality Monitoring Program developed and managed by Ferrum College continues the work of tracking the trophic state of the lake. Algal community composition, tributary sampling, and bacterial monitoring are part of this comprehensive 38-year effort. Consistent sampling and water quality monitoring can help identify cyanobacteria and akinetes, the dormant spores that lead to bloom formation.

Because the VDEQ budget historically contains no funding for inland waterway HAB research and response, SMLA actively lobbied the Virginia General Assembly for the allocation of $150,000 for the creation of a watershed study. This request was included in the State budget signed in March of 2024 and the work to develop the objectives and scope of the study is underway now.

Community involvement is also vital for maintaining Smith Mountain Lake as a cherished resource. To this end, SMLA has launched "Dock Watch," a new community science volunteer program designed to monitor HAB activity. Beginning in May of 2024, volunteers have been collecting water samples at select docks around the lake and are examining them to better understand cyanobacteria activity levels and trends. All of the water quality data collected at the lake is from main channel locations. The primary recreational contact with the lake water by residents is at their docks. This data is uploaded to NOAA's Phytoplankton Monitoring Network, contributing to a national database used for HAB research. This collective effort ensures rapid identification and tracking of HAB activity, benefiting both the local community and environmental research on a national level.

“This project exemplifies a holistic approach to lake management and environmental stewardship, integrating historical data, advanced modeling, and community engagement to prioritize and implement innovative strategies that effectively mitigate HABs and protect water quality,” said Chris L. Mikolajczyk, Princeton Hydro’s Senior Manager of Aquatics and Client Manager for Smith Mountain Lake. “This ongoing work highlights the importance of science-based interventions in preserving our precious natural resources.”

[gallery size="medium" link="none" ids="15377,15374,15373"]

The Smith Mountain Lake Association is a 501(c)3 nonprofit with the mission to keep Smith Mountain Lake clean and safe. Founded in 1969, SMLA is the longest serving advocate for the Smith Mountain Lake community, and its focused efforts help to retain the pristine beauty of the lake and the vibrant local economy. Click here to learn more and get involved.

Over the last two decades, the Princeton Hydro team has improved water quality in hundreds of ponds and lakes, restored many miles of rivers, and enhanced thousands of acres of ecosystems in the Northeast. From species surveys to water quality monitoring, our professionals perform comprehensive assessments in order to understand the landscape. Using tools like ArcGIS, we can map and model the watershed and arrive at holistic solutions for resource management. Our natural resources and lake management experts are complemented by our field team who utilize amphibious vehicles for mechanical invasive species removal, install aeration systems to improve water quality, and conduct natural lake treatments to manage algal blooms. We have secured millions of dollars in grant funding for watershed and ecological restoration projects on behalf of our clients.

Click here to learn about the Watershed Management Program in Somerset County, for which we recently helped secure grant funding from the New Jersey Highlands Water Protection and Planning Council.

[post_title] => Using Innovative & Integrated Strategies to Safeguard Smith Mountain Lake's Water Quality [post_excerpt] => [post_status] => publish [comment_status] => open [ping_status] => open [post_password] => [post_name] => smith-mountain-lake [to_ping] => [pinged] => [post_modified] => 2024-07-13 20:43:32 [post_modified_gmt] => 2024-07-13 20:43:32 [post_content_filtered] => [post_parent] => 0 [guid] => https://princetonhydro.com/?p=15367 [menu_order] => 0 [post_type] => post [post_mime_type] => [comment_count] => 0 [filter] => raw ) [comment_count] => 0 [current_comment] => -1 [found_posts] => 207 [max_num_pages] => 19 [max_num_comment_pages] => 0 [is_single] => [is_preview] => [is_page] => [is_archive] => [is_date] => [is_year] => [is_month] => [is_day] => [is_time] => [is_author] => [is_category] => [is_tag] => [is_tax] => [is_search] => [is_feed] => [is_comment_feed] => [is_trackback] => [is_home] => 1 [is_privacy_policy] => [is_404] => [is_embed] => [is_paged] => [is_admin] => [is_attachment] => [is_singular] => [is_robots] => [is_favicon] => [is_posts_page] => 1 [is_post_type_archive] => [query_vars_hash:WP_Query:private] => 8eba863851f8ba5dab8414f615166cbd [query_vars_changed:WP_Query:private] => 1 [thumbnails_cached] => [allow_query_attachment_by_filename:protected] => [stopwords:WP_Query:private] => Array ( [0] => about [1] => an [2] => are [3] => as [4] => at [5] => be [6] => by [7] => com [8] => for [9] => from [10] => how [11] => in [12] => is [13] => it [14] => of [15] => on [16] => or [17] => that [18] => the [19] => this [20] => to [21] => was [22] => what [23] => when [24] => where [25] => who [26] => will [27] => with [28] => www ) [compat_fields:WP_Query:private] => Array ( [0] => query_vars_hash [1] => query_vars_changed ) [compat_methods:WP_Query:private] => Array ( [0] => init_query_flags [1] => parse_tax_query ) )

Blog

archive
 
Topics
Select Topics
Posted on July 12, 2024

Using Innovative & Integrated Strategies to Safeguard Smith Mountain Lake’s Water Quality

Popular Topics

Company News

Engineering

Environmental Action

Environmental Services

Flood Mitigation

Invasive Species Management

Lake and Pond Management

Natural Resource Management

Stormwater Management

Stream Restoration